Saddam Hussein was convicted for his role in the killings of 148 Shiite Muslims from a town where assassins tried to kill the dictator in 1982. (MCT photo)
BAGHDAD, Iraq — In the end, Saddam Hussein died at the hands of those he brutalized during a bloody regime that led Iraq into two disastrous wars with the United States and left the country and its people in utter chaos.
The 69-year-old former dictator, clutching a Quran, struggled as he was taken from his cell but regained his composure as he was being led to the execution room wearing a black hat, jacket and trousers. He refused to have a hood placed over his head when executed before dawn for crimes against humanity.
“He totally surrendered,” National Security adviser Mouwafak al-Rubaie told state-run Iraqiyah television.
It was a marked departure for the man who had vexed three U.S. presidents and spewed hostility at his trial for ordering the deaths of 148 men and boys after an assassination attempt against him in 1982.
Foes set off celebratory gunfire in parts of Baghdad, but there were no signs of feared widespread violence by his supporters.
Sami al-Askari, a political adviser to Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki and witness to the execution, told The Associated Press that Saddam struggled when he was taken from his cell in an American military prison but was composed in his last moments.
“Before putting the rope around his neck, Saddam shouted ’Allahu Akbar. The nation will be victorious and Palestine is Arab,“’ al-Askari told The Associated Press.
Saddam was hanged shortly afterward.
In Baghdad’s Shiite enclave of Sadr City, people danced in the streets while others fired guns in the air to celebrate the former dictator’s death. The government did not impose a round-the-clock curfew as it did last month when Saddam was convicted to thwart any surge in retaliatory violence.
Despite Saddam’s ouster, Washington, its allies and the new Iraqi leaders remain mired in a fight to quell a stubborn insurgency by Saddam loyalists and a vicious sectarian conflict.
President Bush called Saddam’s execution “the kind of justice he denied the victims of his brutal regime.”
The execution took place during the year’s deadliest month for U.S. troops, with the toll reaching 108.
State-run Iraqiya television initially reported that Saddam’s half-brother Barzan Ibrahim and Awad Hamed al-Bandar, the former chief justice of the Revolutionary Court, also were hanged. However, three officials later said only Saddam was executed.
“We wanted him to be executed on a special day,” National Security adviser Mouwafak al-Rubaie told state-run Iraqiyah.
Shortly before the execution, Saddam’s black hat was removed and Saddam was asked if he wanted to say something, al-Askari said.
“No I don’t want to,” al-Askari quoted Saddam as saying. Saddam repeated a prayer after a Sunni Muslim cleric who was present.
“Saddam later was taken to the gallows and refused to have his head covered with a hood,” al-Askari said. “Before the rope was put around his neck, Saddam shouted: ’God is great. The nation will be victorious and Palestine is Arab.”’
He said the government had not decided what to do with Saddam’s body.
Photographs and video footage were taken, al-Rubaie said.
“He did not ask for anything. He was carrying a Quran and said: ’I want this Quran to be given to this person,’ a man he called Bander,” he said. Al-Rubaie said he did not know who Bander was.
“Saddam was treated with respect when he was alive and after his death,” al-Rubaie said. “Saddam’s execution was 100 percent Iraqi and the American side did not interfere.”
The station earlier was airing national songs after the first announcement and had a tag on the screen that read “Saddam’s execution marks the end of a dark period of Iraq’s history.”
The execution came 56 days after a court convicted Saddam and sentenced him to death for his role in the killings of the 148 Shiite Muslims after the assassination attempt on him. Iraq’s highest court rejected Saddam’s appeal Monday and ordered him executed within 30 days.
A U.S. judge on Friday refused to stop Saddam’s execution, rejecting a last-minute court challenge.
U.S. troops cheered as news of Saddam’s execution appeared on television at the mess hall at Forward Operating Base Loyalty in eastern Baghdad. But some soldiers expressed doubt that Saddam’s death would be a significant turning point for Iraq.
“First it was weapons of mass destruction. Then when there were none, it was that we had to find Saddam. We did that, but then it was that we had to put him on trial,” said Spc. Thomas Sheck, 25, of Philadelphia, who is on his second tour in Iraq. “So now, what will be the next story they tell us to keep us over here?”
Sgt. Elston Miramonte, 25, of Monticello, N.Y., said Saddam got what he deserved.
“All the people that he killed, did they deserve to die? He had a fair trial, and it was time to execute him,” he said.
The execution was carried out around the start of Eid al-Adha, the Islamic world’s largest holiday, which marks the end of the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the hajj. Many Muslims celebrate by sacrificing domestic animals, usually sheep.
Sunnis and Shiites throughout the world began observing the four-day holiday at dawn Saturday, but Iraq’s Shiite community — the country’s majority — was due to start celebrating on Sunday.
Al-Maliki had rejected calls that Saddam be spared, telling families of people killed during the dictator’s rule that would be an insult to the victims.
“Our respect for human rights requires us to execute him, and there will be no review or delay in carrying out the sentence,” al-Maliki’s office quoted him as saying during a meeting with relatives before the hanging.
Human Rights Watch criticized the execution, calling Saddam’s trial “deeply flawed.”
“Saddam Hussein was responsible for massive human rights violations, but that can’t justify giving him the death penalty, which is a cruel and inhuman punishment,” said Richard Dicker, director of Human Rights Watch’s International Justice Program.
The hanging of Saddam, who was ruthless in ordering executions of his opponents, will keep other Iraqis from pursuing justice against the ousted leader.
At his death, he was in the midst of a second trial, charged with genocide and other crimes for a 1987-88 military crackdown that killed an estimated 180,000 Kurds in northern Iraq. Experts said the trial of his co-defendants was likely to continue despite his execution.
Many people in Iraq’s Shiite majority were eager to see the execution of a man whose Sunni Arab-dominated regime oppressed them and Kurds.
Before the hanging, a mosque preacher in the Shiite holy city of Najaf on Friday called Saddam’s execution “God’s gift to Iraqis.”
“Oh, God, you know what Saddam has done! He killed millions of Iraqis in prisons, in wars with neighboring countries and he is responsible for mass graves. Oh God, we ask you to take revenge on Saddam,” said Sheik Sadralddin al-Qubanji, a member of the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq.
On Thursday, two half brothers visited Saddam in his cell, a member of the former dictator’s defense team, Badee Izzat Aref, told the AP by telephone from the United Arab Emirates. He said the former dictator handed them his personal belongings.
A senior official at the Iraqi defense ministry said Saddam gave his will to one of his half brothers. The official spoke on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to speak to the media.
In a farewell message to Iraqis posted Wednesday on the Internet, Saddam said he was giving his life for his country as part of the struggle against the U.S. “Here, I offer my soul to God as a sacrifice, and if he wants, he will send it to heaven with the martyrs,” he said.
One of Saddam’s lawyers, Issam Ghazzawi, said the letter was written by Saddam on Nov. 5, the day he was convicted by an Iraqi tribunal in the Dujail killings.
The message called on Iraqis to put aside the sectarian hatred that has bloodied their nation for a year and voiced support for the Sunni Arab-dominated insurgency against U.S.-led forces, saying: “Long live jihad and the mujahedeen.”
Saddam urged Iraqis to rely on God’s help in fighting “against the unjust nations” that ousted his regime.
Najeeb al-Nauimi, a member of Saddam’s legal team, said U.S. authorities maintained physical custody of Saddam until the execution to prevent him being humiliated publicly or his corpse being mutilated, as has happened to previous Iraqi leaders deposed by force. He said they didn’t want anything to happen to further inflame Sunni Arabs.
“This is the end of an era in Iraq,” al-Nauimi said from Doha, Qatar. “The Baath regime ruled for 35 years. Saddam was vice president or president of Iraq during those years. For Iraqis, he will be very well remembered. Like a martyr, he died for the sake of his country.”
Iraq’s death penalty was suspended by the U.S. military after it toppled Saddam in 2003, but the new Iraqi government reinstated it two years later, saying executions would deter criminals.
Saddam’s own regime used executions and extrajudicial killings as a tool of political repression, both to eliminate real or suspected political opponents and to maintain a reign of terror.
In the months after he seized power on July 16, 1979, he had hundreds of members of his own party and army officers slain. In 1996, he ordered the slaying of two sons-in-law who had defected to Jordan but returned to Baghdad after receiving guarantees of safety.
Saddam built Iraq into a one of the Arab world’s most modern societies, but then plunged the country into an eight-year war with neighboring Iran that killed hundreds of thousands of people on both sides and wrecked Iraq’s economy.
During that war, as part of the wider campaign against Kurds, the Iraqi military used chemical weapons against the Kurdish town of Halabja in northern Iraq, killing an estimated 5,000 civilians.
The economic troubles from the Iran war led Saddam to invade Kuwait in the summer of 1990, seeking to grab its oil wealth, but a U.S.-led coalition inflicted a stinging defeat on the Iraq army and freed the Kuwaitis.
U.N. sanctions imposed over the Kuwait invasion remained in place when Saddam failed to cooperate fully in international efforts to ensure his programs for creating weapons of mass destruction had been dismantled. Iraqis, once among the region’s most prosperous, were impoverished.
The final blow came when U.S.-led troops invaded in March 2003. Saddam’s regime fell quickly, but political, sectarian and criminal violence have created chaos that has undermined efforts to rebuild Iraq’s ruined economy.
While he wielded a heavy hand to maintain control, Saddam also sought to win public support with a personality cult that pervaded Iraqi society. Thousands of portraits, posters, statues and murals were erected in his honor all over Iraq. His face could be seen on the sides of office buildings, schools, airports and shops and on Iraq’s currency.